Digital Transformation (ZZ-1103)

9 minute read

Published in School of Digital Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, 2022

This lesson is from Tutorialspoint.

  • IoT (Internet of Things)
    • is an advanced automation and analytics system
    • which exploits
      • networking, sensing, big data, and artificial intelligence technology
    • to deliver complete systems for a product or service.
  • These systems allow greater transparency, control, and performance when applied to any industry or system.
  • IoT systems have applications across industries through their unique flexibility and ability to be suitable in any environment.
  • They enhance data collection, automation, operations, and much more through smart devices and powerful enabling technology.

IoT − Key Features

  • AI
    • IoT essentially makes virtually anything “smart”, meaning it enhances every aspect of life with the power of data collection, artificial intelligence algorithms, and networks.
    • This can mean something as simple as enhancing your refrigerator and cabinets to detect when milk and your favorite cereal run low, and to then place an order with your preferred grocer.
  • Connectivity
    • New enabling technologies for networking, and specifically IoT networking, mean networks are no longer exclusively tied to major providers.
    • Networks can exist on a much smaller and cheaper scale while still being practical.
    • IoT creates these small networks between its system devices.
  • Sensors
    • IoT loses its distinction without sensors.
    • They act as defining instruments which transform IoT from a standard passive network of devices into an active system capable of real-world integration.
  • Active Engagement
    • Much of today’s interaction with connected technology happens through passive engagement.
    • IoT introduces a new paradigm for active content, product, or service engagement.
  • Small Devices
    • Devices, as predicted, have become smaller, cheaper, and more powerful over time.
    • IoT exploits purpose-built small devices to deliver its precision, scalability, and versatility.

IoT − Advantages

  • Improved Customer Engagement
    • Current analytics suffer from blind-spots and significant flaws in accuracy; and as noted, engagement remains passive.
    • IoT completely transforms this to achieve richer and more effective engagement with audiences.
  • Technology Optimization
    • The same technologies and data which improve the customer experience also improve device use, and aid in more potent improvements to technology.
    • IoT unlocks a world of critical functional and field data.
  • Reduced Waste
    • IoT makes areas of improvement clear.
    • Current analytics give us superficial insight, but IoT provides real-world information leading to more effective management of resources.
  • Enhanced Data Collection
    • Modern data collection suffers from its limitations and its design for passive use.
    • IoT breaks it out of those spaces, and places it exactly where humans really want to go to analyze our world.
    • It allows an accurate picture of everything.

IoT − Disadvantages

  • Security
    • IoT creates an ecosystem of constantly connected devices communicating over networks.
    • The system offers little control despite any security measures.
    • This leaves users exposed to various kinds of attackers.
  • Privacy
    • The sophistication of IoT provides substantial personal data in extreme detail without the user’s active participation.
  • Complexity
    • Some find IoT systems complicated in terms of design, deployment, and maintenance given their use of multiple technologies and a large set of new enabling technologies.
  • Flexibility
    • Many are concerned about the flexibility of an IoT system to integrate easily with another.
    • They worry about finding themselves with several conflicting or locked systems.
  • Compliance
    • IoT, like any other technology in the realm of business, must comply with regulations.
    • Its complexity makes the issue of compliance seem incredibly challenging when many consider standard software compliance a battle.

IoT - Hardware

  • The hardware utilized in IoT systems includes
    • devices for a remote dashboard,
    • devices for control,
    • servers,
    • a routing or bridge device, and
    • sensors.
  • These devices manage key tasks and functions such as system activation, action specifications, security, communication, and detection to support-specific goals and actions.

IoT − Sensors

  • The most important hardware in IoT might be its sensors.

  • These devices consist of

    • energy modules, power management modules, RF modules, and sensing modules.
  • RF modules

    • manage communications through their signal processing, WiFi, ZigBee, Bluetooth, radio transceiver, duplexer, and BAW (Bulk Acoustic Wave).
  • Sensing modules

    • manages sensing through assorted active and passive measurement devices

    • S.NoDevicesDevices
      1.accelerometerstemperature sensors
      2.magnetometersproximity sensors
      3.gyroscopesimage sensors
      4.acoustic sensorslight sensors
      5.pressure sensorsgas RFID sensors
      6.humidity sensorsmicro flow sensors
    • accelerometers

      • An accelerometer is a device that measures the vibration, or acceleration of motion of a structure.
      • The force caused by vibration or a change in motion (acceleration) causes the mass to “squeeze” the piezoelectric material which produces an electrical charge that is proportional to the force exerted upon it.
    • magnetometers

      • instrument for measuring the strength and sometimes the direction of magnetic fields, including those on or near the Earth and in space.
      • Magnetometers are also used to calibrate electromagnets and permanent magnets and to determine the magnetization of materials.
    • gyroscopes

      • is a device used for measuring or maintaining orientation and angular velocity.
        • autorotation of the screen and view on the screen whenever a phone is rotated
        • Similarly, it is required in a smartphone to be able to watch 360-degree videos or photos.
        • The photo or the video moves, when we move our phone due to the presence of Gyroscope.
    • Acoustic sensors

      • Sound / Noise
    • Pressure sensors

      • a device that senses pressure and converts it into an electric signal where the amount depends upon the pressure applied.
    • Humidity Sensors

      • Electronic devices that measure and report the moisture and air temperature of the surrounding environment where they are deployed e.g. in air, soil, or confined spaces.
    • Temperature sensors

      • temperature measurement in a readable form through an electrical signal.
      • A thermometer is the most basic form of a temperature meter that is used to measure the degree of hotness and coolness.
    • Proximity sensors

      • is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact.
      • A proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic field or a beam of electromagnetic radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in the field or return signal.
      • Proximity sensors can have a high reliability and long functional life because of the absence of mechanical parts and lack of physical contact between the sensor and the sensed object.
    • Image sensors

      • An image sensor or imager is a sensor that detects and conveys information used to make an image.
      • It does so by converting the variable attenuation of light waves (as they pass through or reflect off objects) into signals, small bursts of current that convey the information.
      • The waves can be light or other electromagnetic radiation. Image sensors are used in electronic imaging devices of both analog and digital types, which include digital cameras, camera modules, camera phones, optical mouse devices, medical imaging equipment, night vision equipment such as thermal imaging devices, radar, sonar, and others.
    • Light sensors

      • converts the light energy into an electrical signal output
      • they can detect the amount of light in a room and raise / lower the blinds or switch on / off the lights automatically to improve the comfort level in a room.
      • They can also be used in order to automatically turn on lights outside or inside a business or a home at night.
    • Gas RFID sensors

      • Gas sensor converts the components and concentrations of various gases into standard electrical signals by using specific physical and chemical effects.
      • It has been widely used in the detection of noxious and harmful gases and natural gas leakage.
    • Micro flow sensors

      • MicroFlow provides a non-contacting, velocity measurement solution for open channels.
      • Flow sensors are used to measure the flow rate of blood or oxygen through a vessel.
      • They are commonly used in HVAC systems, medical devices, chemical factories, and septic systems. Flow sensors are able to detect leaks, blockages, pipe bursts, and changes in liquid concentration due to contamination or pollution.

Wearable Electronics

  • Head − Helmets, glasses
  • Neck − Jewelry, collars
  • Arm − Watches, wristbands, rings
  • Torso − Clothing, backpacks
  • Feet − Socks, shoes

| | | | ———————————————————— | ———————————————————— |

Standard Devices

  • The desktop, tablet, and cellphone remain integral parts of IoT as the command center and remotes.
    • The desktop provides the user with the highest level of control over the system and its settings.
    • The tablet provides access to the key features of the system in a way resembling the desktop, and also acts as a remote.
    • The cellphone allows some essential settings modification and also provides remote functionality.
  • Other key connected devices include standard network devices like routers and switches.

Edge Computing

  • The edge means local or near local processing.
    • As opposed to Cloud.
  • used where low latency is necessary or even when a network may not always be available.
  • real-time decision-making
  • Cloud Applications
    • get data locally
    • send to Cloud
    • process it
    • send it back.
  • Edge
    • no need to send that data to the cloud.
    • more secure and have less impact on the network.
    • Edge AI algorithms can still be trained in the Cloud but get deployed at the edge.
      • maps application on your phone work without a network?
  • Why Edge
    • Network communication
      • expensive
      • sometimes impossible.
        • Streaming video and audio information in particular to the Cloud for processing is especially data intensive.
    • Latency
      • Real-time processing is necessary for applications like self-driving cars that cannot handle latency in making important decisions.
    • Security
      • health data
      • business data
      • proprietary data
    • Optimization software
      • especially when made for a specific hardware, can help achieve great efficiency of deployed AI models.
  • Edge Applications
    • Self-driving Car
    • Detecting regular heart beats or heart attacks
    • Robots using surgery
    • Tracking Animals